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Today in Black History, 06/18/2015 | Nicodemus

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June 18, 1877 The first settlers arrived in Nicodemus, Kansas, the only remaining western community established by African Americans. The town was named for an individual that came to America on a slave ship and later purchased his freedom. Formerly enslaved people in the South were encouraged to settle in Nicodemus. The town was portrayed as a place for African Americans to establish Black self-governance. Nicodemus had a population of almost 500, a bank, two hotels, three churches, a newspaper, a drug store, and three general stores by 1880. However, the Union Pacific Railroad bypassed Nicodemus and established an extension six miles away and across the river in 1888. Businesses moved to the new extension and Nicodemus began to experience a long gradual decline. The decline was accelerated by the 1929 depression and the severe droughts from 1932 to 1934. The town was reduced to a population of 76 people by 1935. Today, approximately 20 people live in Nicodemus and the only remaining business is the Nicodemus Historical Society Museum. Nicodemus was designated a National Historical Site November 12, 1996. Annually, Emancipation Day is celebrated in Nicodemus the last weekend of July.  
 

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Today in Black History, 06/17/2015 | Venus Williams

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June 17, 1980 Venus Ebony Starr Williams, professional tennis player, businesswoman and author, was born in Lynwood, California. Williams’ family moved to West Palm Beach, Florida when she was ten so that she and her sister could attend a tennis academy. She began her professional tennis career in 1994 and won her first World Tennis Association singles title in 1998. Over her career, she has won 46 WTA singles titles and 22 Grand Slam titles, 7 in singles, 13 in doubles, and 2 in mixed doubles. That is more than any other active player, other than her sister Serena. At the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympic Games, Williams became only the second player to win Gold medals in both singles and doubles at the same games. She also won a Gold medal in doubles at the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympic Games. Williams has also led the fight for equal prize money for women. After Wimbledon and the French Open announced in 2007 that they would award equal prizes to women, the Chicago Sun-Times cited Williams as “the single factor that changed the minds of the boys” and a leader whose “willingness to take a public stand separates her not only from her female peers, but also from our most celebrated male athletes.” Williams received her associate degree in Fashion Design in 2007 and is chief executive officer of her own interior design company. She and her sister became part-owners of the Miami Dolphins in 2009, the first African American female owners of a National Football League franchise. “Venus and Serena: A Biography” was published in 2005 and Williams published “Come to Win: Business Leaders, Artists, Doctors, and Other Visionaries on How Sports Can Help You Top Your Profession” in 2010. She was named one of the “30 Legends of Women’s Tennis: Past, Present and Future” by Time magazine in 2011. Also that year, Forbes magazine listed her number 10 on its list of Most Powerful Black Women in the United States.

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Today in Black History, 06/16/2015 | Francis B. “Frank” Johnson

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June 16, 1792 Francis B. “Frank” Johnson, bugler, bandleader and composer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Not much is known of Johnson’s early life other than he was a well- known musician in Philadelphia by 1818. That year, Johnson published “A Collection of New Cotillions,” the first published African American composer. He went on to compose more than 300 pieces of music with over 250 of his pieces being published. Johnson composed much of the music for the triumphal return to Philadelphia of Revolutionary War hero General Lafayette in 1872. He led his band to Europe in 1837, the first Black American musicians to visit Europe, where they performed for Victoria shortly before she became Queen of England. Johnson returned to the United States at the end of 1838 and toured widely through the U. S. and Canada until 1844. White bands often refused to perform in parades when Johnson’s band was performing. Johnson died April 6, 1844 but his band continued to perform until about the time of the Civil War. A Pennsylvania state historical marker in Philadelphia was dedicated to Johnson in 1992.

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Home, Juneteenth & Black in Latin America: The Wright's Weekly Update June 15 - 21

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Today in Black History 06/15/2015 | Bessie Coleman

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June 15, 1921 Elizabeth “Bessie” Coleman became the first African American woman to earn an international aviation license. Coleman was born January 26, 1892 in Atlanta, Texas. She became interested in flying in her early 20s but could not gain admittance to American flight schools because she was Black and a woman. Therefore, she traveled to Paris, France where she learned to fly and gained her license. After completing an advanced training course, Coleman became a barnstorming stunt flier know as Queen Bess. Coleman died April 30, 1926 when her plane crashed. A road at O’Hara Airport in Chicago, Illinois was renamed Bessie Coleman Drive in 1990. The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp in her honor and she was posthumously inducted into the Women in Aviation Hall of Fame in 1995. Biographies of Coleman include “Bessie Coleman: The Brownskin Lady Bird” (1994) and “She Dared to Fly: Bessie Coleman” (1997). Her name is enshrined in the Ring of Genealogy at the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, Michigan.

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Today in Black History, 06/14/2015 | Henry Ossian Flipper

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June 14, 1877 Henry Ossian Flipper became the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point. Flipper was born enslaved March 21, 1856 in Thomasville, Georgia. After the Civil War, he enrolled at Atlanta University and as a freshman was appointed to West Point where there were already four Black cadets. Despite the difficulties caused by his White classmates, Flipper persevered and graduated. He described his experience at West Point in the 1878 book “The Colored Cadet at West Point.” As a second lieutenant, Flipper was the first non-White officer to command the Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry. Flipper was found guilty of “conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman” in 1881 and dismissed from the service based on a relationship and correspondence with a White woman. He contested the charges and fought to regain his commission until his death May 3, 1940. The Department of the Army issued Flipper a posthumous Certificate of Honorable Discharge in 1976 and President William J. Clinton issued a pardon in 1990. After his discharge was changed, a bust of Flipper was unveiled at West Point and the Henry O. Flipper Award is given annually to graduating cadets who exhibit “leadership, self-discipline and perseverance in the face of unusual difficulties.” “Negro Frontiersman: The Western Memoirs of Henry O. Flipper” was published in 1963.

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Today in Black History, 06/13/2015 | Thurgood Marshall

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June 13, 1967 Thurgood Marshall became the first African American appointed to the United States Supreme Court. He was appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Marshall was born July 2, 1908 in Baltimore, Maryland. He earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from Lincoln University in 1930 and his Bachelor of Laws degree from Howard University School of Law in 1933. He began working for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1934. He won his first major civil rights case, Murray v. Pearson, in 1936 and his first case before the Supreme Court, Chambers v. Florida, in 1940. In total, Marshall won 29 of 32 cases he argued before the Supreme Court. His most famous case was the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, in which the court ruled that separate but equal public education could not be truly equal. Marshall was the 1946 recipient of the NAACP Spingarn Medal. President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in 1963. After being appointed to the Supreme Court, Marshall served for 24 years, retiring in 1991. Marshall died January 24, 1993. There are numerous memorials to him around the country, including the main office building of the federal court system which is named in his honor and has a statue of him in the atrium. Texas Southern University named their law school after him in 1976 and the University of Maryland opened the Thurgood Marshall Law Library in 1980. Marshall received the Liberty Medal in 1992 in recognition of his long history of protecting individual rights under the Constitution and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor, by President William J. Clinton November 30, 1993. The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp in his honor in 2003. Biographies of Marshall include “Thurgood Marshall: American Revolutionary” (1998) and “Thurgood Marshall” (2002). Marshall’s name is enshrined in the Ring of Genealogy at the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, Michigan. 

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Today in Black History, 06/12/2015 | Straight University

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June 12, 1869 Straight University was founded by the American Missionary Association of the Congregational Church to educate newly freed African Americans in New Orleans, Louisiana and the surrounding region. In addition to secondary and collegiate level instruction, Straight also offered professional training, including a law department from 1874 to 1886. Law school graduates included Louis Andre Martinet, who played a significant role in the Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case, P. B. S. Pinchback, the first African American governor of a U.S. state, and Dr. James W. Ames, founder of Dunbar Hospital in Detroit, Michigan. Straight was merged with New Orleans University in 1930 and Dillard University was formed. The new university was created to “offer a traditional liberal arts curriculum, rather than nonprofessional vocational training” and emphasized a close engagement with the Black community through “various education extension programs, societies, and clubs.” Today, Dillard has approximately 1200 students, 125 faculty members and an endowment of $42 million. Notable alumni include Ellis Marsalis, Jr., Garrett Morris, Dr. Joyce M. Roche, and Dr. Ruth J. Simmons.
 

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Today in Black History, 06/11/15 | Remembering Ruby Dee

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June 11, 2014 Ruby Dee, actress, playwright, poet and activist, died. Dee was born Ruby Ann Wallace October 27, 1924 in Cleveland, Ohio but grew up in Harlem, New York. She earned her Bachelor of Arts degree from Hunter College in 1945. She made several appearances on Broadway before gaining national recognition for her role in the 1950 film “The Jackie Robinson Story”. Dee was nominated for eight Emmy Awards, winning for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or Special for her role in the 1990 television film “Decoration Day”. She was nominated for the 2007 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role in “American Gangster”. She and her husband, Ossie Davis, won the 2007 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for “With Ossie and Ruby”. Other films in which she appeared include “A Raisin in the Sun” (1961), “Do The Right Thing” (1989), “Jungle Fever” (1991), and “A Thousand Words” (2012). Dee was a long time civil rights activist, belonging to the Congress of Racial Equality, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. She was personal friends with Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X. She and Davis received the National Medal of Arts, the highest honor bestowed on an individual artist by the United States, from President William J. Clinton October 5, 1995. They received Kennedy Center Honors in 2004 and the Lifetime Achievement Freedom Award from the National Civil Rights Museum in 2005. Dee received the 2008 Spingarn Medal from the NAACP and an honorary doctorate degree from Princeton University in 2009. She and Davis published their autobiography, “With Ossie and Ruby: In This Life Together”, in 1998.

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Today in Black History, 06/10/15 | Marcus Garvey

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June 10, 1940 Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., publisher, entrepreneur, orator and Black Nationalist, died. Garvey was born August 17, 1887 in St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association August 1, 1914, “to unite all people of African ancestry of the world to one great body to establish a country and absolute government of their own.” Garvey moved to New York City in 1916 and founded the Negro World newspaper. Garvey was unjustly convicted of mail fraud and sentenced to five years in prison in 1923. That sentence was commuted by President J. Calvin Coolidge and Garvey was released in 1927 and deported to Jamaica where he is interred at a shrine in National Heroes Park. There are memorials to Garvey around the world, including statues and streets and schools named after him in Jamaica, Trinidad, the United States, Canada, Kenya, Nigeria, and the United Kingdom. A number of books have been published about Garvey and his movement, including “Black Power and the Garvey Movement” (1971), “Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion” (1988), and “Negro With a Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey and his Dream of Mother Africa” (2008). Garvey’s name is enshrined in the Ring of Genealogy at the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, Michigan.
 

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Today in Black History 06/09/2015 | Jackie Wilson

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June 9, 1934 Jack Leroy “Jackie” Wilson, hall of fame singer and performer known as “Mr. Excitement,” was born in Detroit, Michigan. Wilson gained early fame as a member of The Dominoes. He began his solo career in 1957 with the release of “Reet Petite” and over the next 15 years recorded more than 50 hit singles, including “To Be Loved” (1957), “You Better Know It” (1959), “A Woman, A Lover, A Friend” (1960), “Stop Dogging Around” (1960), “Baby Workout” (1963), and “Higher and Higher” (1969). Wilson suffered a massive heart attack in 1975 that left him in a vegetative state until his death January 21, 1984. Wilson was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987 and received the Rhythm and Blues Foundation Legacy Tribute Award in 2003. Rolling Stone magazine named him one of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time in 2004.

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There's No Place Like Home: The Wright's Weekly Update June 8 - 14

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Today in Black History, 06/08/2015 | Arturo Alfonso Schomburg

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June 8, 1938 Arturo Alfonso Schomburg, historian, writer and activist, died. Schomburg was born January 24, 1874 in Santurce, Puerto Rico. While in grade school, one of his teachers claimed that Black people had no history, heroes, or accomplishments. This inspired Schomburg to prove the teacher wrong. Schomburg was educated at St. Thomas College in the Virgin Islands where he studied Negro literature. He immigrated to New York City in 1891 and began teaching Spanish in 1896. Schomburg co-founded the Negro Society for Historical Research in 1911 and later became president of the American Negro Academy. He published his widely read and influential essay “The Negro Digs Up His Past” in 1925. The New York Public Library System purchased his collection of literature, art, and other materials in 1928 and appointed him curator of the Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature and Art (later renamed the Arthur Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture). His biography, “Arthur Alfonso Schomburg: Black Bibliophile & Collector,” was published in 1989. Schomburg’s name is enshrined in the Ring of Genealogy at the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, Michigan.

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Today in Black History 06/07/2015 | First African American Emmy Award-winner

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June 7, 1970 Gail Fisher became the first African American to win an Emmy Award. Fisher won the award for Outstanding Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role in Drama for her performance in the detective series “Mannix.” Fisher was born August 18, 1935 in Orange, New Jersey. As a teenager, she entered several beauty contests and won a two year scholarship to study acting at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City. She made her first television appearance in 1960 in “Play of the Week.” She also appeared in a television commercial for All Laundry detergent in the early 1960s, the first Black female to appear in a national television commercial with lines. Fisher appeared in “Mannix” from 1968 to 1975. For that role, she was nominated for the Emmy Award for Outstanding Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role in Drama three additional times. She also won two Golden Globe Awards, the first Black actress to win the award. After “Mannix” was cancelled, she rarely appeared on television. Fisher died December 2, 2000.

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Today in Black History, 06/06/2015 | Tommie Smith

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June 6, 1944 Tommie Smith, hall of fame track and field athlete, was born in Clarksville, Texas. Smith won a track scholarship to San Jose State University where he set the world record in the 200-meter race in 1966. Also at San Jose State, Smith was a co-founder of the Olympic Project for Human Rights, an organization formed to boycott the 1968 Mexico City Summer Olympic Games to highlight human rights violations by the United States. The boycott did not occur and Smith went on to win the Gold medal in the 200-meter race. At the medal ceremony, he and John Carlos raised their black-gloved fist in a black power salute. They also wore black socks and no shoes to represent African American poverty in the U.S. For these actions they were suspended from the U.S. team, banned from the Olympic Village, and they and their families were subject to death threats. Smith earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in social science from San Jose State and his master’s degree in sociology from Goddard College. He later became a track coach at Oberlin College where he also taught sociology. Smith was inducted into the USA Track and Field Hall of Fame in 1978 and his autobiography, “Silent Gesture: The Autobiography of Tommie Smith,” was published in 2007. He and Carlos received the 2008 Arthur Ashe Award for Courage at the ESPY Awards. Smith was inducted into the International Civil Rights Walk of Fame in 2014.

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Today in Black History, 06/05/2015 | The American Negro Theater

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June 5, 1940 The American Negro Theater was formed in Harlem, New York by Abram Hill and Frederick O’Neal. The theater produced 19 plays which were performed in the Schomburg Library. Their most successful production was “Anna Lucasta” which was performed on Broadway in 1944. The theater started the Studio Theatre training program for beginning actors in 1942. Graduates of that program include Sidney Poitier and Harry Belafonte. The theater closed in 1949.
 

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Today in Black History, 06/04/2015 | Roland Fryer

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June 4, 1977 Roland Gerhard Fryer, Jr., economist and the youngest African American ever granted tenure at Harvard University, was born in Daytona Beach, Florida but raised in Lewisville, Texas. Fryer earned his Bachelor of Arts degree, magna cum laude, from the University of Texas at Arlington in 1998 after two and a half years while working a full-time job. He earned his Ph. D. in economics from Pennsylvania State University in 2002. He then completed a three year fellowship with the Harvard Society of Fellows. He joined Harvard’s economics department in 2006 and was granted tenure at 30. He is currently the Henry Lee Professor of Economics and founder and faculty director of the Education Innovation Laboratory. Fryer has published numerous economics related papers in prominent academic journals. He was listed as one of Time Magazine’s 2009 100 Most Influential People in the World and in 2011 was awarded a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur “Genius” Grant in 2011. 

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Today in Black History, 06/03/2015 | Jospehine Baker

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June 3, 1906 Josephine Baker, entertainer and actress, was born Freda Josephine McDonald in St. Louis, Missouri. Baker moved to New York City at 15 and appeared in the chorus of “Shuffle Along” (1921). By the time she appeared in “The Chocolate Dandies” (1924), she was the highest paid chorus girl in vaudeville. She debuted in Paris, France in 1925 and after a while was the most successful American entertainer working in France. Despite her popularity in France, Baker never achieved the same level of success in the United States. She returned to Paris in 1937 and became a French citizen. During World War II, Baker volunteered to spy for France and provided significant assistance to the French Resistance. In recognition of her efforts, she was the first American born woman to receive the French military honor, the Croix de Guerre. Although based in France, Baker was supportive of the Civil Rights Movement. When in the U.S., she refused to perform for segregated audiences and spoke at the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Baker died April 12, 1975. Biographies of Baker include “Jazz Cleopatra: Josephine Baker in Her Time” (1989) and “Josephine: The Hungry Heart” (2001). HBO broadcasted her life story in the 1991 film “The Josephine Baker Story.” The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp in her honor in 2008. 

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Today in Black History 06/02/2015 | First African American Bishop

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June 2, 1875 James Augustine Healy was officially ordained as Bishop of Portland, Maine, the first African American bishop in the United States. Healy was born enslaved April 6, 1830 near Macon, Georgia. Although he was three-quarters or more of European ancestry, he was considered Black. Because Georgia prohibited the education of slaves, Healy’s Irish-American father arranged for his children to move north where they could obtain an education and have better opportunities. Healy earned his Bachelor of Arts degree, and was valedictorian of his class, from the College of Holy Cross in 1849. Following graduation, he wanted to enter the priesthood but could not study at the Jesuit novitiate in Maryland as it was a slave state. Therefore, he entered Sulpician Seminary in Montreal, Canada where he earned his Master of Arts degree in 1851. He was ordained a priest June 10, 1854 at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France. Healy became pastor of St. James Church, the largest Catholic congregation in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1866. After being ordained a bishop, he governed his diocese for the next 25 years, overseeing the establishment of 60 new churches, 68 missions, 18 convents, and 18 schools. Healy died August 5, 1900. Today, the Archdiocese of Boston Office for Black Catholics awards the Bishop James Augustine Healy Award to dedicated Black parishioners. Healy’s biography, “Bishop Healy: Beloved Outcast,” was published in 1954. “Passing for White: Race, Religion, and the Healy Family, 1820-1920” was published in 2003.

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Cinetopia, Juneteenth & Summer! The Wright's June 2015 eZine

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