Today in Black History, 3/27/2015 - The Charles H. Wright Museum Blog

Today in Black History, 3/27/2015

• March 27, 1909 Benjamin Francis Webster, hall of fame jazz tenor saxophonist, was born in Kansas City, Missouri. Webster learned to play piano and violin at an early age and later learned to play the saxophone. Webster played in a number of orchestras during the 1930s, including Benny Moten’s, Fletcher Henderson’s, Cab Calloway’s, and Teddy Wilson’s. By 1940, he had become the first major tenor soloist of the Duke Ellington Orchestra, a position he held until 1943. In 1964, Webster moved to Copenhagen, Denmark where he died September 20, 1973. The Ben Webster Foundation was founded in 1976 “to support the dissemination of jazz in Denmark” and there is a street named in his honor in Copenhagen. Webster was posthumously inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1974.

• March 27, 1915 Robert Lockwood, Jr., hall of fame blues guitarist, was born in Turkey Scratch, Arkansas. Lockwood started playing the organ at eight and learned the guitar from Robert Johnson in his early teens. By 17, he was playing professionally throughout the Mississippi Delta. He began a partnership with Sonny Williamson II in 1941 to perform on the daily “King Biscuit Time” radio program. Lockwood moved to Chicago, Illinois in 1950 and played and recorded with a number of blues bands. He moved to Cleveland, Ohio in 1961 and played regularly with his band at numerous local venues up to his death November 21, 2006. Albums by Lockwood as leader include “Steady Rollin’ Man” (1970), “Hangin’ On” (1979), “Delta Crossroads” (2000), and “The Legend Live” (2003). Lockwood also played on “Last of the Great Mississippi Delta Bluesmen: Live in Dallas” (2004) which won the Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album. He was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame in 1989 and received the National Heritage Fellowship Award, the United States’ highest honor in the folk and traditional arts, in 1995. He received an honorary Doctor of Music degree from Cleveland State University in 2002. Robert Lockwood Jr. Way in Cleveland is named in his honor.

• March 27, 1924 Sarah Lois Vaughan, hall of fame jazz singer, was born in Newark, New Jersey. Vaughan sang “Body and Soul” at the Apollo Amateur Night contest in 1942 and won. She was noticed by Earl Hines and spent 1943 and 1944 touring with his band. Vaughan began her solo career in 1945 and recorded a number of hit jazz singles, including “If You Could See Me Now” (1946), which was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame as a recording of “qualitative or historical significance” in 1998, “Black Coffee” (1949), “Make Yourself Comfortable” (1954), and “Broken Hearted Melody” (1959). She won Esquire magazine’s 1947 New Star Award. Her 1977 album “I Love Brazil” garnered a Grammy nomination. In 1980, Vaughan performed a symphonic Gershwin program with the New Jersey Symphony which was broadcast by PBS and won the 1981 Emmy Award for Individual Achievement – Special Class. A slightly modified version was recorded “Gershwin Live!” and it won the 1983 Grammy Award for Best Jazz Vocal Performance – Female. Vaughan was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1985 and the American Jazz Hall of Fame in 1988. In 1989, the National Endowment for the Arts designated her a NEA Jazz Master, the highest honor the nation bestows on a jazz artist, and she received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Vaughan died April 3, 1990. The documentary “Sarah Vaughan: The Divine One” was released in 1991 and her biography, “The Life of Sarah Vaughan,” was published in 1993.

• March 27, 1934 Arthur Mitchell, hall of fame dancer and choreographer, was born in Harlem, New York. Mitchell made his debut as the first African American dancer with the New York City Ballet in 1955 and by the next year he had risen to principal dancer. Mitchell left the New York City Ballet in 1966 to appear in several Broadway shows and to help form ballet companies in Washington, D. C. and Brazil. Mitchell formed the Dance Theater of Harlem in 1969 and over the years DHT has created hundreds of professional opportunities for minorities in dance, music, and other theater activities. Mitchell has received numerous honors, including Kennedy Center Honors in 1993, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur “Genius” Award in 1994, the National Medal of Arts, the highest honor bestowed on an individual artist by the United States, presented by President William J. Clinton October 5, 1995, and induction into the National Museum of Dance’s Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame in 1999. Mitchell has also received honorary doctorate degrees from numerous leading universities.

• March 27, 1944 Jesse Brown, the first African American to serve as United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs, was born in Detroit, Michigan but raised in Chicago, Illinois. Brown enlisted in the United States Marine Corps in 1963 and reached the rank of corporal. While serving during the Vietnam War, he was seriously injured resulting in his right arm being paralyzed for life. After his military service, Brown graduated, with honors, from the City Colleges of Chicago. He joined the staff of Disabled American Veterans in 1967 and became the DAV’s first African American director in 1989. He served in that position until 1993 when he was selected by President William J. Clinton to become Secretary of Veterans Affairs. Brown served in that capacity until 1997 and during his tenure expanded services offered to female veterans, homeless veterans, and veterans who were ill due to chemical exposure in Vietnam or the Gulf War. In 2000, Brown was given the Leader’s in Furthering Education Memorial Foundation’s Presidential Unsung Hero Award which “seeks to honor an outstanding veteran who has demonstrated heroic efforts in surmounting disability and whose contributions to society serve as an inspiration to others.” That same year, he was selected as the Outstanding Disabled Veteran of the Year by the Disabled American Veterans. Brown died August 15, 2002. The Jesse Brown Veteran Administration Medical Center in Chicago is named in his honor.

• March 27, 1965 Crystal Bird Fauset, the first African American female state legislator in the United States, died. Fauset was born June 27, 1894 in Princess Anne, Maryland but raised in Boston, Massachusetts. From 1918 to 1926, she worked as a field secretary for African American girls at the Young Women’s Christian Association. She earned her bachelor’s degree from Teacher’s College, Columbia University in 1931. Also that year, Fauset founded the Colored Women’s Activities Club for the Democratic National Committee and as a result was appointed director of the Women and Professional Project in the Works Progress Administration. She also served on the Federal Housing Advisory Board in 1935. Fauset was elected to the Pennsylvania state legislature in 1938, the first African American female legislator in the country. During her time in the legislature, she focused on improvements in public health, housing the poor, public relief, and women’s rights in the workplace. Fauset resigned from the Pennsylvania legislature in 1940. Fauset was appointed race relations director at the Office of Civil Defense in 1941 and became a member of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Black cabinet.” After World War II, Fauset helped found the United Nations Council of Philadelphia which later became the World Affairs Council. During the 1950s, she traveled to Africa, India, and the Middle East to support independence leaders. A Pennsylvania state historical marker was dedicated in her honor in Philadelphia in 1991.

• March 27, 1970 Mariah Carey, singer, songwriter and actress, was born in Long Island, New York. Carey began singing at three and by high school was working as a demo singer for local recording studios. Carey co-wrote the tracks on her 1990 debut album, “Mariah Carey,” which won her the Grammy Awards for Best New Artist and Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for the single “Vision of Love.” Also Carey was the first recording artist to have her first five singles top the Billboard chart. Subsequent albums by Carey include “Music Box” (1993), “Butterfly” (1997), “The Emancipation of Mimi” (2005), “E=MC2” (2008), and “Me. I Am Mariah……The Elusive Chanteuse” (2014). Carey has sold more than 200 million albums, singles and videos worldwide and earned five Grammy Awards. Carey received Billboard’s Artist of the Decade Award and the World Music Award for Best Selling Female Artist of the Millennium in 2000. VH1 ranked her second on their list of the 100 Greatest Women in Music in 2012. Carey made her movie acting debut in “The Bachelor” (1999). Her first starring role was in the much maligned “Glitter” (2001), however she returned in “Precious” (2009) and won the Breakthrough Actress Performance Award at the International Film Festival. Time magazine listed her as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World in 2008. Carey is a philanthropist who has donated time and money to many youth oriented organizations, including Camp Mariah which enables youth to embrace the arts and introduces them to career opportunities.

• March 27, 1997 Pamela Gordon was sworn in as the first female and the youngest Premier of Bermuda. Gordon was born September 2, 1955 in Hamilton, Bermuda. She earned her college degree in commerce from Queen’s University. Gordon won a seat in the Bermuda Senate in 1990, was appointed Minister of Youth Development in 1992, and later served as Minister of Environment, Planning and Recreation. Gordon served as premier until November 19, 1998.

• March 27, 1999 A memorial to Charles “Bird” Parker, Jr. was dedicated in Kansas City, Kansas near the American Jazz Museum. The memorial features a 10 foot tall bronze head of Parker mounted on an 8 foot high base. On the base is etched “BIRD LIVES.” Parker was born August 29, 1920 in Kansas City. He began playing the saxophone at eleven and was touring nightclubs and other venues in the southwest by 1938. He moved to New York City in 1939 and led a recording session for the Savoy label marketed as the “greatest jazz session ever” November 26, 1945. During his career, Parker played a leading role in the development of bebop and his innovative approaches exercised enormous influence on his contemporaries. Parker died March 12, 1955. The coroner who performed the autopsy mistakenly estimated Parker’s 34 year old body to be between 50 and 60 years of age. Parker was posthumously inducted into the Downbeat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1955 and the Big Band Hall of Fame in 1979. He was honored with a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1984, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp in his honor in 1995, and the Library of Congress added his recording “Ko-Ko” (1945) to the National Recording Registry as a recording of “cultural, historical or aesthetical importance” in 2002. His recordings “Billie’s Bounce” (1945), “Ornithology” (1946), “Charlie Parker with Strings” (1950), and “Jazz at Massey Hall” (1953) have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame as having “qualitative or historical significance.” Much has been written about Parker, including “Charlie Parker” (1960) and “Bird: The Legend of Charlie Parker” (1962). The biographical film “Bird” was released in 1988.

Today in Black History, 3/26/2015
Today in Black History, 3/28/2015
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