Today in Black History, 11/17/2015 | Howard University Television - The Charles H. Wright Museum Blog

Today in Black History, 11/17/2015 | Howard University Television

November 17, 1980 WHUT-TV, the first African American owned and operated public educational television station in the United States, began broadcasting. The station was founded as WHMM-TV before changing its call letters to represent Howard University Television in 1998. Since its founding, the station has won eleven Emmy Awards and today reaches over 2 million households in the greater Washington, D. C. area. 

November 17, 1834 Nancy Green, storyteller, cook and one of the first African Americans hired to promote a corporate trademark, was born enslaved in Montgomery County, Kentucky. Green was hired by the R. T. Davis Milling Company in 1890 to represent Aunt Jemima for a ready-mixed, self-rising flour. Green was introduced as Aunt Jemima at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois where she operated a pancake cooking display. Her personality and cooking ability made the display so successful that the company received over 50,000 orders and she received a medal and certificate from the Expo officials. After the Expo, Green was given a lifetime contract to adopt the Aunt Jemima moniker and promote the pancake mix. She traveled on promotional tours all over the country and gained the financial freedom to become an activist and engage in antipoverty programs. Green died September 23, 1923. "Slave in a Box: The Strange Career of Aunt Jemima" was published in 1998. 

November 17, 1865 James McCune Smith, physician, abolitionist and author, died. Smith was born April 18, 1813 in New York City. After graduating from the African Free School, he attempted to attend several American colleges but was denied admission because of his race. Therefore, he attended the University of Glasgow in Scotland where he graduated at the top of his class with his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1835, his Master of Arts degree in 1836, and his medical degree in 1837. Upon his return to the United States in 1837, Smith became the first African American professionally trained physician in the country. In 1846, Smith was appointed the only doctor for the Free Negro Orphan Asylum in 1846 and worked there for more than 20 years. He also opened what is believed the first Black pharmacy in the U. S. Smith was a member of the American Anti-Slavery Society and was one of the key organizers of New York's resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Also during the mid-1850s, he helped Frederick Douglass establish the National Council of Colored People. Smith was a prolific writer whose works include "The Destiny of the People of Color" (1843) and "Ira Aldridge" (1860). He also wrote the introduction to Frederick Douglass' second autobiography, "My Bondage and My Freedom" (1855), in which he stated "the worst of our institutions, in its worst aspect, cannot keep down energy, truthfulness, and earnest struggle for the right." Smith was appointed professor of anthropology at Wilberforce College in 1863 but was too ill to take the position. James McCune Smith School in New York City is named in his honor. 

November 17, 1904 William Henry Hastie, lawyer, judge and educator, was born in Knoxville, Tennessee. Hastie earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from Amherst College, magna cum laude, in 1925. He then earned his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1930 and his Doctor of Judicial Science degree in 1933 from Harvard Law School. President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Hastie to the United States District Court for the Virgin Islands in 1937, the first African American federal judge. Hastie resigned from the court in 1939 to become dean of the Howard University School of Law. He worked as a civilian aide to the Secretary of War during World War II and advocated for equal treatment of African Americans in the army. He resigned the position in 1943 in protest against segregated training facilities. Also that year, Hastie was awarded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Spingarn Medal. President Harry S. Truman appointed Hastie Territorial Governor of the Virgin Islands in 1946 and nominated him to the U. S. Court of Appeals in 1949. Hastie was confirmed as Judge of the Third U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals July 19, 1950, the first African American federal circuit judge. He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Science in 1952. Hastie became Chief Judge of the Third Circuit Appellate Court in 1968, a position he held for three years. He was awarded over 20 honorary doctorate degrees. The University of Wisconsin Law School has offered the William H. Hastie Fellowship Program since 1973 to provide lawyers of color an opportunity to prepare for a career teaching law. Hastie died April 14, 1976.

November 17, 1911 Omega Psi Phi Fraternity was founded on the campus of Howard University by students Edgar A. Love, Oscar J. Cooper and Frank Coleman and Professor Ernest E. Just. They adopted the motto "friendship is essential to the soul" and the cardinal principles, manhood, scholarship, perseverance, and uplift. Since 1945, the fraternity has undertaken a National Social Action Program to meet the needs of African Americans in the areas of health, housing, civil rights, and education, including an annual $50,000 donation to the United Negro College Fund. Today there are more than 750 chapters throughout the United States and around the world with more than 100,000 members. Notable members include Vernon Jordan, Jesse Jackson, L. Douglas Wilder, Earl Graves, Michael Jordan, Bill Cosby, Tom Joyner, and Shaquille O'Neal. • November 17, 1923 Aristides Maria Pereira, the first President of the Republic of Cape Verde, was born on the island of Boa Vista. Pereira was heavily involved in the anti-colonial movement, organizing strikes and rising through the ranks of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, from the late 1940s until Cape Verde gained independence. When Cape Verde gained independence from Portugal July 5, 1975 Pereira became president, a position he held until he was defeated in the presidential election of 1991. Pereira died September 22, 2011. The Aristides Pereira International Airport on the Cape Verdean island of Boa Vista is named in his honor. 

November 17, 1944 Samuel Leamon Younge, Jr., the first Black college student to die in the Civil Rights Movement, was born in Tuskegee, Alabama. After receiving a medical discharge from the United States Navy, Younge enrolled at Tuskegee Institute in 1965. He became involved in civil rights activities in his first semester. He was involved in the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League, a campus group organized by students to work on desegregating public facilities and lead voter registration drives. Younge was shot to death January 3, 1966 after he tried to use the "Whites only" restroom at a Standard Oil gas station in Macon County, Alabama. After the shooting, the gas station attendant was not indicted for the crime until November, 1966 and was acquitted by an all-White jury the next month. Younge's story is told in "Sammy Younge, Jr.: The First Black College Student to Die in the Black Liberation Movement" (1968). 

November 17, 1945 Elvin Ernest Hayes, hall of fame basketball player, was born in Rayville, Louisiana. Hayes and Don Chaney were the first African Americans to play basketball for the University of Houston in 1966. He led the Houston Cougars over the UCLA Bruins and Lew Alcindor in what was called the "Game of the Century" in 1968. Hayes was selected by the San Diego Rockets in the 1968 National Basketball Association Draft and led the league in scoring, the last rookie to accomplish that. Over his 16 season professional career, Hayes was a 12-time All-Star and won a NBA championship in 1978. He was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1990 and into the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame in 2006. After retiring, Hayes returned to the University of Houston and earned his Bachelor of Science degree in speech and recreation management and fulfilled a childhood dream and became a City of Liberty police reserve officer in 2007. He currently serves as an analyst for radio broadcasts of University of Houston basketball games. 

November 17, 1952 Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa, lawyer, trade union leader and businessman, was born in Soweto, South Africa. Ramaphosa enrolled at the University of the North to study law in 1972. While at the university, he became involved in politics that resulted in him being detained in solitary confinement for 11 months in 1974. After his release, he continued his education at the University of South Africa, where he earned his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1981 which qualified him to be an attorney. He helped start the National Union of Mineworkers in 1982 and was elected general secretary, a position he held until 1991.Under his leadership, union membership grew from 6,000 in 1982 to 300,000 in 1992. Ramaphosa was elected secretary general of the African National Congress in 1991 and headed the ANC team in negotiating the end of apartheid with the government. He was elected chairman of the Constitutional Assembly in 1994 and played a central role in the government of national unity. Ramaphosa is also chairman of the Shanduka Group, a Black owned and managed investment company. He was the first recipient of the Olof Palme Prize in 1987 and has received honorary doctorate degrees from the University of Massachusetts and the University of Pennsylvania. Ramaphosa was included on the 2007 Time magazine list of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. Ramaphosa was appointed Deputy President of South Africa and chair of the National Planning Commission in 2014. 

November 17, 1955 James Price Johnson, hall of fame pianist, composer and one of the originators of the stride style of jazz piano playing, died. Johnson was born February 1, 1894 in New Brunswick, New Jersey. He began playing professionally in 1912 and had gained a reputation as one of the premier ragtime pianist on the East Coast before he was twenty. Besides being a jazz piano pioneer, Johnson composed many hit tunes for the musical theater, including "Charleston," "If I Could Be With You (One Hour Tonight)," "Don't Cry Baby," and "Snowy Morning Blues." Johnson retired from performing in 1951. A collection of his papers is housed at the Institute of Jazz Studies at Rutgers University. Johnson was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970, the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1992, and the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers Jazz Walk of Fame in 2007. The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp in his honor in 1995. Johnson's biography, "A Case of Mistaken Identity: The Life and Music of James P. Johnson," was published in 1984. 

November 17, 1961 Charles Harrison "C. H." Mason, founder and first Senior Bishop of the Church of God in Christ, died. Mason was born September 8, 1866 in Shelby County, Tennessee. He did not receive a formal education. He began his ministerial career in 1893. He and Charles Price Jones were expelled for the Baptist association in 1897 for preaching holiness and sanctification. As a result, they formed a new fellowship of churches. They split in 1907 and after years of conflict Mason won the legal right to the Church of God in Christ name and charter in 1915. He established the headquarters of the church in Memphis, Tennessee and began to travel the country and foreign countries establishing COGIC churches. He also opposed African American men fighting for democracy in World War I while having to face racism and discrimination at home. Mason dedicated Mason Temple in Memphis as the church's national meeting site in 1945. After his death, Mason was entombed in Mason Temple. The C. H. Mason Theological Seminary in Atlanta, Georgia is named in his honor. "Bishop C. H. Mason and the Roots of the Church of God in Christ" was published in 1997. 

November 17, 1964 Susan Elizabeth Rice, United States National Security Advisor, was born in Washington, D.C. Rice earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in history, Phi Beta Kappa, from Stanford University in 1986. She was awarded a Rhodes scholarship and attended New College, Oxford where she earned her Master of Philosophy degree in 1988 and her Ph. D. in international relations in 1990. Her dissertation, "Commonwealth Initiative in Zimbabwe, 1979-1980: Implication for International Peacekeeping," was chosen as the United Kingdom's most distinguished in international relations. Rice served in various capacities at the National Security Council in the administration of President William J. Clinton from 1993 to 1997. She was appointed assistant secretary of state for African affairs in 1997 and held that position until 2001. She joined the Brookings Institute in 2002 as senior fellow in the Foreign Policy and Global Economy and Development program. She was confirmed as U. S. Ambassador to the United Nations January 22, 2009, the first African American woman to hold that position. She served in that capacity until 2013 when she was appointed National Security Advisor. Rice serves on the boards of a number of organizations and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. 

November 17, 1970 Winser E. Alexander received patent number 3,541,333 for his System for Enhancing Fine Detail in Thermal Photographs. His invention provides a device and thermal enhancement method that detects, discriminates, and more effectively displays differences in infrared radiation, thus resulting in increased resolution and an increase in the effective dynamic range of the infrared observation system. Alexander is a professor of electrical and computer engineering at North Carolina State University. He earned his Bachelor of Science degree from North Carolina A&T University in 1964 and his Master of Science degree in 1966 and Ph. D. in 1974 from the University of New Mexico. 

November 17, 1986 Theodora Ann "Tidye" Pickett, the first African American woman to compete for the United States in the Olympic Games, died. Pickett was born November 3, 1914 in Chicago, Illinois. She was educated at Illinois State University. Pickett qualified for the U. S. team scheduled to compete at the 1932 Los Angeles Summer Olympic Games but was replaced at the last minute because of her race. She did compete at the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympic Games, reaching the quarterfinals of the low hurdles before breaking her foot and was unable to continue. After retiring from track, Pickett served as principal of a school in East Chicago Heights, Illinois for 23 years. When she retired in 1980, the school was renamed in her honor. 

November 17, 1989 Katherine Mary Dunham received the National Medal of Arts, the highest honor bestowed on an individual artist by the United States, from President George H. W. Bush. Dunham was born June 22, 1909 in Chicago, Illinois but raised in Glen Ellyn, Illinois. She became fascinated with dance at a young age and while in high school started a dance school for young Black children. Dunham studied dance and anthropology at the University of Chicago and earned her Bachelor of Philosophy degree in social anthropology in 1936. Dunham formed Ballet Negres at 21, the first Black ballet company in the U. S. and performed as guest star for the Chicago Opera Company from 1933 to 1936. She and her company performed for 20 weeks in the Broadway production of "Cabin in the Sky" in 1940. Dunham also appeared in several movies in the early 1940s, including "Carnival of Rhythm" (1941) and "Stormy Weather" (1943). She opened the Katherine Dunham School of Dance and Theater in 1945. Her students included Eartha Kitt, James Dean, Gregory Peck, Shelly Winters, Sidney Poitier, Shirley MacLaine, Warren Beatty, and many others who went on to stardom. She and her troupe performed almost exclusively internationally beginning in 1947, performing in Europe, North Africa, South America, and the Far East. Dunham retired from performing in 1967. Dunham was also a social activist, refusing to sign a lucrative Hollywood contract because the producer wanted her to replace some of her darker skinned company members. Also, she went on a hunger strike at 82 to protest U. S. policy against Haitian boat-people. Dunham received Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, the Distinguished Service Award from the American Anthropological Association in 1986, and was inducted into the National Museum of Dance's Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame in 1987. She published several books, including "A Touch of Innocence: Memoirs of Childhood" (1959) and "Island Possessed" (1969). Dunham died May 21, 2006. The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp in her honor in 2012. 

November 17, 1989 John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie received the National Medal of Arts, the highest honor bestowed on an individual artist by the United States, from President George H. W. Bush. Gillespie was born October 21, 1917 in Cheraw, South Carolina. He had started to play the piano by four. He also taught himself to play the trombone and trumpet. His first professional job was with the Frank Fairfax Orchestra in 1935 and he joined Cab Calloway's orchestra in 1939. During this time, Gillespie also started writing big band music for other bands. Gillespie put together his first big band in 1944 and in the late 1940s was instrumental in the Afro-Cuban music movement, bringing Latin and African elements to greater prominence in jazz. His most famous Afro-Cuban compositions are "Manteca" and "Tin Tin Deo." In 1956, he organized a band to go on a State Department tour of the Middle East, earning the nickname "the Ambassador of Jazz." Gillespie was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1960 and was named an NEA Jazz Master, the highest honor the nation bestows on a jazz artist, by the National Endowment for the Arts in 1982. In 1989, Gillespie gave 300 performances in 27 countries and 31 states, headlined 3 television specials, performed 2 symphonies, and recorded 4 albums. Also that year, he received the Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, France's most prestigious cultural award, and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. He received Kennedy Center Honors in 1990. Gillespie died January 6, 1993. He published his autobiography, "To Be or Not to Bop: Memoirs of Dizzy Gillespie," in 1979. His recording "Groovin' High" (1945) was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame as a recording of "lasting qualitative or historical significance" in 2000 and "A Night in Tunisia" (1946) was inducted in 2004 

November 17, 1992 Audre Geraldine Lorde, writer, poet and activist, died. Lorde was born February 18, 1934 in New York City. Legally blind, she wrote her first poem when she was in the eighth grade. She earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in library science from Hunter College in 1959 and her Master of Library Science degree from Columbia University in 1964. Lorde's first volume of poetry, "The First Cities," was published in 1968. Other volumes include "Cables to Rage" (1970), "Between Ourselves" (1976), and "The Cancer Journals" (1980). Lorde co-founded Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press in 1980, the first publisher for women of color in the United States. Lorde was the state poet of New York from 1991 to 1992. She was in her words, "black, lesbian, mother, warrior, poet." 

November 17, 1998 Esther Rolle, stage, film and television actress, died. Rolle was born November 8, 1920 in Pompano Beach, Florida. Her earliest roles were on the stage, including "The Blacks" (1962), "Day of Absence" (1965), "Man Better Man" (1969), and "Don't Play Us Cheap" (1973). Rolle is best known for her role as Florida Evans on the television situation comedies "Maude" (1972-1974) and "Good Times" (1974-1979). Rolle won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Actress in a Miniseries or Movie for her role in "Summer of My German Soldier" in 1979. She also appeared in the films "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" (1979), "Driving Miss Daisy" (1989), and "My Fellow Americans" (1996). 

November 17, 2003 Frank Martin Snowden, Jr. received the National Humanities Medal from President George W. Bush for "work that has deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened our citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities." Snowden was born July 17, 1911 in York County, Virginia. He earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1932, Master of Arts degree in 1933, and Ph. D. in 1944 from Harvard University. He taught classics at Georgetown University, Vassar College, and Mary Washington College before joining Howard University in 1940 where he served as dean of the College of Liberal Arts. Snowden document that Black people were able to co-exist with the Greeks and Romans because they were considered equals. He authored several books, including "Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience" (1970) and "Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks" (1983). Snowden was fluent in Latin, Greek, German, French, and Italian. He served as cultural attache at the American Embassy to Rome from 1954 to 1956. Snowden died February 18, 2007. The Frank M. Snowden, Jr. Lecture Series is held annually at Howard. 

November 17, 2004 Marva Collins received the National Humanities Medal from President George W. Bush for "work that has deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened our citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities." Collins was born August 31, 1936 in Monroeville, Alabama. She earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in secretarial sciences from Clark College in 1959. She taught school for two years in Alabama before moving to Chicago, Illinois where she taught in the public school system for 14 years. Collins founded Daniel Hale Williams Westside Preparatory School in 1975 to teach low income African American students who the Chicago Public School System had labeled as learning disabled. She successfully ran the school until 2008 when it closed due to insufficient enrollment and funding. Collins wrote, "I have discovered few learning disabled students in my three decades of teaching, I have, however, discovered many, many victims of teaching inabilities." Collins wrote a number of books, including "Marva Collin's Way" (1990). The biographical television movie "The Marva Collins Story" aired in 1981. "The School that Cared: A Story of the Marva Collins Preparatory School of Cincinnati" was published in 2003. Collins died June 24, 2015. 

November 17, 2004 Shelby Steele received the National Humanities Medal from President George W. Bush for "work that has deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened our citizen's engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand American's access to important resources in the humanities." Steele was born January 1, 1946 in Chicago, Illinois. He earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from Coe College in 1968, his Master of Arts degree in sociology from Southern Illinois University in 1971, and his Ph. D. in English from the University of Utah in 1974. He taught English literature at San Jose State University from 1974 to 1991. Steele has been a Robert J. and Marion E. Oster Senior Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institute since 1994. He has published several books, including "The Content of Our Character: A New Version of Race in America" (1991), which won the National Book Critics Circle Award in the general nonfiction category, "A Dream Deferred: The Second Betrayal of Black Freedom in America" (1999), and "White Guilt: How Blacks and Whites Together Destroyed the Promise of the Civil Rights Era" (2006). His documentary "Seven Days in Bensonhurst" (1990) won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Background/Analysis of a Single Story. 

November 17, 2006 Ruth Brown, hall of fame R&B singer and actress, died. Brown was born Ruth Alston Weston January 30, 1928 in Portsmouth, Virginia. She recorded her first hit, "So Long," in 1949 and was on the R&B charts for 149 weeks with 16 top 10 blues records, including five number ones, from that time to 1955. Those hits were "Teardrops from My Eyes" (1950), "I'll Wait for You" (1951), "5-10-15 Hours" (1952), "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean" (1953), and "Oh What a Dream" (1954). Brown won the 1989 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical for her performance on Broadway in "Black and Blue" and the 1990 Grammy Award for Best Jazz Vocal by a Female for her album "Blues on Broadway." Brown's fight for musicians' rights and royalties in 1987 led to the founding of the Rhythm and Blues Foundation. She was an inaugural recipient of the organization's Pioneer Award in 1989. She was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1993 and the Blues Hall of Fame in 2002. Brown's autobiography, "Miss Rhythm," was published in 1996. 

November 17, 2008 Henry "Hank" Jones received the National Medal of Arts, the highest honor bestowed on an individual artist by the United States, from President George W. Bush. Jones was born July 31, 1918 in Vicksburg, Mississippi but raised in Pontiac, Michigan. He studied piano at an early age and was performing in Michigan and Ohio by 13. He moved to New York City in 1944 and was accompanist for Ella Fitzgerald from 1948 to 1953. He was staff pianist for CBS Studio from 1959 to 1975 and backed guests like Frank Sinatra on the "Ed Sullivan Show." Jones recorded prolifically as an unaccompanied soloist, in duos with other pianist, and with various small ensembles. His recordings include "Bop Redux" (1977), "I Remember You" (1977), "Steal Away" (1995), and "Round Midnight" (2006). He was designated a NEA Jazz Master, the highest honor the nation bestows on a jazz artist, by the National Endowment for the Arts in 1989, received the Jazz Living Legend Award from the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers in 2003, and was inducted into the Downbeat Jazz Hall of Fame in 2009. He was nominated for five Grammy Awards and received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2009. Jones died May 16, 2010. 

November 17, 2008 The Fisk Jubilee Singers received the National Medal Arts, the highest honor bestowed on artist by the United States, from President George W. Bush. The Jubilee Singers were created as a nine member choral ensemble by George L. White, Fisk University treasurer and music director, to tour and earn money for the university. As a gesture of hope and encouragement, White named them The Jubilee Singers, a biblical reference to the year of Jubilee in the Book of Leviticus, Chapter 25. They began their first national tour October 6, 1871. They sang at the 1872 World Peace Festival in Boston, Massachusetts and at the end of the year President Ulysses S. Grant invited them to perform at the White House. The group grew to eleven members in 1873 and toured Europe for the first time. Funds raised that year were used to construct the school's first permanent building, Jubilee Hall, and in the building is a floor to ceiling portrait of the original Jubilee Singers commissioned by Queen Victoria during the tour as a gift from England to Fisk. The building was designated a National Historic Landmark December 2, 1974. The Jubilee Singers continue to perform as a touring ensemble and the National Arts Club honored them with a Presidential Lifetime Achievement Award in 1996. They were inducted into the Gospel Music Hall of Fame in 2000, their 1909 recording of "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" was added to the National Recording Registry as a recording of "cultural, historical, or aesthetical importance" in 2002, and the group was honored on the Music City Walk of Fame in 2006. Their multi-media package, "In Bright Mansions," was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Recording Package in 2004. Annually, October 6 is celebrated as Jubilee Day to commemorate that first national tour. "Dark Midnight When I Rise: The Story of The Fisk Jubilee Singers" was published in 2000. 

November 17, 2010 Warren Morton Washington received the National Medal of Science, the highest honor given by the United States to the nation's scientist, from President Barack H. Obama. Washington was born August 28, 1936 in Portland, Oregon. He earned his Bachelor of Science degree in physics in 1958 and Master of Science degree in meteorology in 1960 from Oregon State University. He earned his Ph. D. in meteorology from Pennsylvania State University in 1964. Washington joined the National Center for Atmospheric Research in 1972 and became the director of the Climate and Global Dynamics Division in 1987. He served on the President's National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere from 1974 to 1984 and in 1995 was appointed by President William J. Clinton to a six year term on the National Science Board in 1995. Washington has published almost 200 papers in professional journals and published "An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling" in 2005.

Omega Psi Phi Fraternity 

Founded on this day.

Samuel Leamon Younge Jr.

The first black college student to be killed during the Civil Rights Movement.

Katherine Mary Dunham

Anthropologist and professional dancer, received the National Medal of Arts.

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