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Today in Black History, 7/29/2014

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• July 29, 1794 Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was dedicated. Mother Bethel was founded by Richard Allen and organized by African American members of St. George’s Methodist Church who walked out due to racial segregation in their worship services. The current structure was built in 1890 and is the oldest church property in the United States continuously owned by African Americans. Bishop Allen, his wife Sarah, and Bishop Morris Brown are entombed in the current structure. The church today has approximately 700 members. Mother Bethel was designated a National Historic Landmark March 16, 1972 and a Pennsylvania Historical Marker was dedicated in 1991.

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Today in Black History, 7/28/2014

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• July 28, 1892 Patrick H. Raymond, the first African American fire chief in the United States, died. Raymond was born in 1831 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Around 1847, his family moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts where he worked as a shoemaker before becoming a journalist at the Boston Herald and the Boston Advertiser. Able to pass as White, Raymond joined the U. S. Navy from 1862 to 1864. After his service, he returned to Cambridge and in 1869 became editor of the Cambridge Press. On January 5, 1871, Raymond was appointed chief engineer of the Cambridge Fire Department. Over the next seven years, he tripled the department’s annual budget, created two new fire companies, and built two new firehouses. Also, he was elected corresponding secretary of the National Association of Fire Engineers in 1873. After being replaced as fire chief in 1878, he returned to the Cambridge Press as editor and business agent.

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Today in Black History, 7/27/2014

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• July 27, 1830 Osborne Perry Anderson, the only African American to escape capture from John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, was born in West Fallow Field, Pennsylvania. Anderson attended Oberlin College before moving to Chatham, Ontario, Canada. There he worked as a printer for the Provincial Freeman. In 1858, he met Brown and was persuaded to participate in the Harpers Ferry raid. On October 16, 1859, Anderson was one of five African Americans to participate in the raid. The raid failed and Anderson and four White men were the only participants to escape capture. In 1861, he published “A Voice From Harpers Ferry,” the only first-hand account of the events and motivation of the participants. In 1864, Anderson enlisted in the Union Army and served as a recruitment officer during the Civil War. Anderson died December 13, 1872.

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Today in Black History, 7/26/2014

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• July 26, 1916 Spottswood William Robinson III, educator, civil rights attorney and judge, was born in Richmond, Virginia. Robinson earned his bachelor’s degree from Virginia Union University in 1936 and his Bachelor of Laws degree from Howard University in 1939, graduating first in his class and achieving the highest scholastic average in the history of the university. From 1939 to 1947, Robinson was on the faculty of Howard’s School of Law and from 1948 to 1960 worked with the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund. In 1951, Robinson litigated the lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County which was one of the cases consolidated and decided under Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. From 1960 to 1964, Robinson was dean of Howard’s School of Law. In 1964, he became the first African American appointed to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. In 1966, he became the first African American appointed to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and in 1981 he became the first African American to serve as chief judge of the District of Columbia Circuit Court. He took senior status in 1989. Robinson died October 11, 1998.

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Today in Black History, 7/25/2014

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• July 25, 1824 George Boyer Vashon, the first African American graduate of Oberlin College, was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. At an early age, Vashon displayed an aptitude for languages, speaking Sanskrit, Hebrew, and Persian, and being well versed in Greek and Latin. In 1844, Vashon earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from Oberlin and was valedictorian of his class. In his speech titled “Liberty of Mind” he stated, “genius, talent, and learning are not withheld by our common Father from people of color.” In 1846, Vashon applied for admission to the Allegheny County bar but his application was rejected because of his race. He therefore moved to New York State and successfully completed their bar examination in 1848, the first Black lawyer in New York. In 1849, Vashon moved to Port-au-Prince, Haiti where he served as a professor of Latin, Greek, and English. In 1851, he returned to the United States and joined the faculty of the predominately White New York Central College. While there, he wrote “Vincent Oge” (1854), an epic poem on the Haitian insurrection. In 1863, Vashon became the second Black president of Avery College. He later became a professor of mathematics and ancient and modern languages at Alcorn College where he served until his death October 5, 1878.

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Today in Black History, 7/24/2014

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• July 24, 1802 Alexander Dumas, playwright and novelist, was born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie in Picardy, France. Dumas’ paternal grandfather was from the colony now known as Haiti and his grandmother was an Afro-Caribbean Creole. In 1822, Dumas moved to Paris, France and began writing plays for the theater. His first two plays, “Henry III and His Court” (1829) and “Christine” (1830), were successful and brought him much acclaim. After writing more successful plays, Dumas turned to historical novels, including “The Three Musketeers” (1844), “Twenty Years After” (1845), and “The Count of Monte Cristo” (1846). Despite his success and aristocratic connections, his being of mixed-race affected him all his life. In response to a man who insulted him about his mixed-race background, Dumas stated, “My father was a mulatto, my grandfather was a Negro, and my great-grandfather a monkey. You see, Sir, my family starts where yours ends.” Also in 1843, he wrote the novel “Georges” that addressed some of the issues of race and colonialism. Dumas died December 5, 1870. His stories have been translated into almost 100 languages and have inspired more than 200 motion pictures. A Paris Metro station was named in his honor in 1970. Biographies of Dumas include “The Incredible Marquis: Alexandre Dumas” (1929) and “Alexandre Dumas: A Biography and Study” (1929).

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Today in Black History, 7/23/2014

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• July 23, 1840 John Adams Hyman, the first African American to represent North Carolina in the United States Congress, was born enslaved in Warren County, North Carolina. As a young person, Hyman had a thirst for knowledge and was sold at least eight times for attempting to learn to read and write. After the Civil War, he was freed and returned to North Carolina where he became a landowner and leader in the Black community. In 1868, Hyman was elected to the North Carolina constitutional convention. That same year, he was elected to the North Carolina State Senate where he served until 1874 when he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives. The election was challenged and Hyman was not officially seated before his term ended in 1876. He unsuccessfully ran for re-election in 1876 and 1878. After that, he moved to Washington, D. C. where he worked for the U. S. Postal Service and U. S. Department of Agriculture. Hyman died September 14, 1891. A North Carolina historical marker honoring Hyman is located in Warrenton, North Carolina.

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Today in Black History, 7/21/2014

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• July 21, 1818 Charles Lewis Reason, mathematician, educator and civil rights activist, was born in New York City. A mathematics child prodigy, Reason began teaching the subject at fourteen at the African Free School. He later studied at McGrawville College. In 1847, Reason co-founded the Society for the Promotion of Education among Colored Children, an organization authorized by the state legislature to oversee Black schools in New York City. In 1849, he was appointed professor of fine writing, Greek, Latin, and French and adjunct professor of mathematics at New York Central College, the first African American professor at a predominantly White college. Reason left that position in 1852 to become principal of the Institute for Colored Youth (later Cheyney University), a post he held until 1855. That year, he returned to New York City where he served as a teacher and administrator in the public school system until his retirement in 1892. Reason was committed to the antislavery cause and worked for improvements in Black civil rights. He founded the New York Political Improvement Association which won the right to a jury trial for previously enslaved fugitives in the state. He also headed the successful 1873 effort to outlaw segregation in New York schools. Reason died August 16, 1893.

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Today in Black History, 7/20/2014

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• July 20, 1874 William Henry Ferris, minister, author and one of the founding fathers of African studies, was born in New Haven, Connecticut. Ferris earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from Yale University in 1895. He then studied for the ministry at Harvard Divinity School and earned his Master of Arts degree in journalism from Harvard University in 1900. He then taught school for a number of years before being ordained a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1910. Ferris was an active defender of civil rights for African Americans and was a member of the Niagara Movement and the American Negro Academy which promoted higher education for African Americans. In 1913, Ferris published “The African Abroad, or His Evolution in Western Civilization, Tracing His Development under Caucasian Milieu” which challenged societal norms in history, theology, and philosophy as they pertained to African Americans. In 1919, he became assistant president general and literary editor on the Universal Negro Improvement Association’s Negro World newspaper. Ferris died in 1941.

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Today in Black History, 7/19/2014

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• July 19, 1783 Richard Potter, the first successful Black magician in the United States, was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Potter was the son of an English baronet and an African American serving woman. As a result, he was educated in Europe and traveled widely before becoming an entertainer. Potter was known for his skills in ventriloquism, hypnosis, and magic and performed throughout New England and Canada. He became a wealthy man and in 1813 bought a 175 acre farm in Andover, New Hampshire in a village now known as Potter Place. Potter died September 20, 1835.

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Today in Black History, 7/18/2014

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• July 18, 1753 Lemuel Haynes, the first African American to serve as a pastor of a White congregation, was born in West Hartford, Connecticut. At five months, Haynes was given over to indentured servitude and remained until he was freed at 21. After being freed, Haynes joined the minutemen and served during the Revolutionary War. After the war, he began to write extensively, criticizing the slave trade and slavery as an institution. He wrote “liberty is equally as precious to a Black man, as it is to a White one, and bondage as equally as intolerable to the one as it is to the other.” By the early 1780s, Haynes had become a leading Calvinist minister and starting in 1783 ministered to Rutland’s West Parish in Vermont for 30 years. In 1804, Middlebury College granted Haynes an honorary Master of Arts degree, the first advanced degree bestowed upon an African American. Haynes died September 28, 1833. His home for the last 11 years of his life in South Granville, New York was declared a National Historic Landmark May 15, 1975. His biography, “Black Puritan, Black Republican: The Life and Thought of Lemuel Haynes, 1753 – 1833” was published in 2003.

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Today in Black History, 7/17/2014

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• July 17, 1794 The African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, the first Black church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the first Black Episcopal Church in the United States, opened its doors. The church was founded in 1792 by Absalom Jones as the African Church of Philadelphia. It developed from the Free African Society, a non-denominational group formed by Jones and Richard Allen who left St. George Methodist Church because of discrimination. While the church has been located in several different building, it has operated continuously since its founding. The church was the first Black church in the country to purchase a pipe organ and the first to hire a Black woman as organist. A historical marker was erected at the original location in 1984 by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. In 1966, the church dedicated the Absalom Jones chapel with a Festal Eucharist and enshrined his ashes in the altar.

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Today in Black History, 7/16/2014

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• July 16, 1862 Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, journalist and civil and women’s rights activist, was born enslaved in Holly Springs, Mississippi. Wells was freed at the end of the Civil War. She attended Rust College but was expelled for her rebellious behavior after confronting the president of the college. In 1889, Wells became co-owner and editor of Free Speech and Headlight, an anti-segregationist newspaper in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1891, a grocery store owned by three Black men was perceived to be taking away a substantial amount of business from a White owned grocery store across the street. The Black owned store was invaded by a mob resulting in three White men being shot and injured. The three Black owners, who were friends of Wells, were jailed and subsequently lynched. The murder of her friends sparked Wells’ interest in investigative journalism about lynching and becoming the leader of the anti-lynching crusade. In 1892, she published “Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all Its Phases” and in 1895 published “A Red Record, 1892-1894” which documented lynchings since the Emancipation Proclamation. In 1893, Wells and other Black leaders organized a boycott of the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois to protest lynchings in the South. Wells was also significantly involved in the founding of the National Association of Colored Women, the National Afro-American Council, which later became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Women’s Era Club, which was renamed the Ida B. Wells Club. Wells spent the latter 30 years of her life working on urban reform in Chicago. Wells died March 25, 1931. In 1990, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp in her honor. “Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells” was published in 1970. Her life is also the subject of a musical drama, “Constant Star,” which debuted in 2006. The Ida B. Wells Housing Project in Chicago is named in her honor. Wells-Barnett’s name is enshrined in the Ring of Genealogy at the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, Michigan.

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Today in Black History, 7/15/2014

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• July 15, 1864 Maggie Lena Walker, hall of fame businesswoman, educator and the first female bank president, was born in Richmond, Virginia. Walker attended the Colored Normal School to be trained as a teacher and received her diploma, with honors, in 1883. After graduation, she taught for three years. In 1899, Walker was elected Right Worthy Grand Secretary-Treasurer of the Independent Order of St. Luke, a Black social and civic organization. In 1902, Walker founded the order newspaper, St. Luke Herald, and opened the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank with her as president November 2, 1903. By 1920, the bank had loaned money to purchase 600 homes. In 1930, the bank merged with two other Black owned banks in Richmond to become the Consolidated Bank and Trust Company with Walker as chairman of the board. The bank operates today as the oldest continuously operating minority-owned bank in the country. As a result of her business acumen, the order became financially successful and by 1924 had 100,000 members, 1500 local chapters, and assets of almost $400,000. Walker served as the leader of the Independent Order of St. Luke and chairman of the bank until her death December 15, 1934. She was the founder and lifelong head of the Colored Women’s Council of Richmond which raised money for local projects and maintained a community house. She was the co-founder and vice president of the Richmond branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and served on the national board for ten years. She also served as a trustee of Hartshorn College and Virginia Union University. Her home in Richmond was designated a National Historic Landmark May 15, 1975 and was opened as a museum in 1985. The Maggie L. Walker Governor’s School for Government and International Studies in Richmond is named in her honor. In 2001, Walker was posthumously inducted into the Junior Achievement U. S. Business Hall of Fame. “Maggie L. Walker and the I. O. of St. Luke: The Woman and Her Work” was published in 1927.

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Today in Black History, 7/14/2014

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• July 14, 1848 Walter “Wiley” Jones, one of the first wealthy African Americans in the South, was born enslaved in Madison County, Georgia but raised in Jefferson County, Arkansas. When Jones’s owner enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1861, Jones became a camp servant. After the war, he moved to Pine Bluff, Arkansas and worked as a barber and waiter in a hotel. He saved his money and invested in real estate and opened several businesses, including a successful saloon and horse-racing park. In 1886, Jones became one of the first African Americans to receive a franchise to operate a mule-drawn streetcar system, the Wiley Jones Street Car Lines. Although he never ran for office, Jones was one of the most influential political citizens in Arkansas during the 1880s and 1890s. He was a delegate to several Republican National Coventions and served as Circuit Clerk of Jefferson County from 1892 to 1894. Jones also supported the Colored Industrial Institute and donated land to the St. James Methodist Church. When Jones died December 7, 1904, he was the richest Black person in the state with an estate valued at $300,000.

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Today in Black History, 7/13/2014

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• July 13, 1863 The New York Draft Riots started. Initially intended to express anger at the draft for the Civil War, the protests turned ugly and degraded into “a virtual racial pogrom, with uncounted numbers of Blacks murdered in the streets.” Numerous buildings were destroyed, including an orphanage for Black children. Many of the protesters were immigrants and viewed freed African Americans as competition for scarce jobs. Order was restored after four days and it is estimated that 120 people were killed and 2,000 injured. At least eleven Black men were lynched. Several books have been written about the riots, including “The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863” (1974) and “The New York City Draft Riots: Their Significance for American Society and Politics in the Age of the Civil War” (1990).

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Today in Black History, 7/12/2014

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• July 12, 1849 William Hooper Councill, educator, author, and first principal of what is now Alabama A&M University, was born enslaved in Fayettville, North Carolina. In 1857, Councill, his mother and one of his brothers were sold and eventually ended up in Alabama. His two other brothers were sold separately and he never saw them again. Councill and his family escaped to the North during the Civil War. Councill returned to Alabama in 1865 to attend a freedmen’s school and graduated in 1867. In 1869, he opened Lincoln School in Huntsville, Alabama to educate Black children in the region. In 1875, he was appointed the first principal of the State Colored Normal School at Huntsville (now Alabama A&M University) with the mission to train Black teachers for Alabama’s segregated school system. In 1877, Coucill founded the Huntsville Herald which he edited and published until 1884. He also founded St. John African Methodist Episcopal Church. Council wrote several books, including “Lamp of Wisdom” (1898), “Negro Development in the South” (1901), and “The Bright Side of the Southern Question” (1903). Councill died April 9, 1909. Hooper Councill High School, the first high school for Black students in Huntsville, was named in his honor and operated from 1867 to the 1960s.

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Today in Black History, 7/11/2014

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• July 11, 1821 Lucy Terry, creator of the oldest known work of literature by an African American, died. Terry was born around 1730 and stolen from Africa as an infant and sold into slavery in Rhode Island. On August 25, 1746, Native Americans attacked two White families in Deerfield, Massachusetts in an area called “The Bars.” Terry composed a ballad about the attack titled “Bars Fight” which earned her local acclaim. A successful free Black man purchased Terry’s freedom and married her in 1756. A persuasive orator, Terry won a case against false land claims before the Supreme Court of Vermont in the 1790s. She also delivered a three hour address to the Board of Trustees of Williams College to support the admittance of her son to the college. Although unsuccessful, the speech was remembered for its eloquence and skill. Her poem was preserved orally until it was published in 1855.

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Today in Black History, 7/10/2014

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• July 10, 1826 Peter Williams, Jr. became the second African American Episcopal priest ordained in the United States. Williams was born in 1786 in New Brunswick, New Jersey. His family moved to New York City where he attended the African Free School. He was also privately taught by the leader of the Episcopal Church. In 1818, Williams led the organization of St. Phillip’s African Church and on this date was ordained a priest. In 1827, he was a co-founder of Freedom’s Journal, the first African American owned and operated newspaper in the U. S. In 1833, he founded the Phoenix Society which provided assistance for impoverished Black New Yorkers. He also served on the executive board of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He helped raise money for the emigration of African Americans to Canada. Williams died in October, 1840.

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Today in Black History, 7/9/2014

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• July 9, 1793 The Act Against Slavery was passed by Upper Canada, that part of Canada that would eventually become Ontario, to prohibit the continuation of slavery. It was the first attempt to abolish slavery in the British Empire. The Act did not immediately abolish slavery but ensured the eventual elimination. The Act stated that all enslaved people in the province would remain enslaved until death, that no new enslaved people could be brought into Upper Canada, and that children born to enslaved females would be freed at age 25. It further stated that any children born to this second generation while they were still enslaved would be free from birth. The Act remained in force until 1833 when the British Slavery Abolition Act abolished slavery in most parts of the British Empire.

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