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Today in Black History, 12/28/2014

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• December 28, 1829 Elizabeth Freeman, the first enslaved African American to file a freedom suit in Massachusetts, died. Frhttp://www.elizabethfreemancenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/elizabeth-freeman-179x300.jpgeeman was born enslaved around 1742 in New York and given the name Bett. In 1746, her owner’s daughter married and Freeman was given to her as a wedding gift and taken to Sheffield, Massachusetts. Sometime after the Massachusetts Constitution was ratified, Freeman heard it read and remembered that it started “all men are born free and equal.” Based on that, she initiated a freedom suit against her owner. An enslaved male name Brom was later added to the suit. On August 22, 1781 in the case of Brom and Bett v. Ashley, a jury in Great Barrington, Massachusetts found that Brom and Bett were not the property of Ashley and awarded them damages. Two years later, this case was cited as precedent when the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that “slavery is inconsistent with our own conduct and constitution” and effectively abolished slavery in Massachusetts. After the case Bett changed her name to Freeman and over the next 20 years earned enough money to buy a plot of land where she lived until her death.

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Today in Black History, 12/27/2014

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• December 27, 1857 Henry Plummer Cheatham, congressman and educator, was born enslaved in Henderson, North Carolina. After the Civil War, he was emancipated and went on to earn his bachelor’s degree, with honors, in 1882 and his master’s degree in 1887 from Shaw University. Cheatham became active in politics and encouraged the establishment of institutions for African Americans and the founding of state normal schools for the training of Black teachers. Cheatham was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1888 and re-elected in 1890. While in Congress, he supported federal aid to education and the Federal Elections Bill to provide federal enforcement to safeguard the voting rights of African Americans in the South. After his congressional district was redrawn, Cheatham was defeated for re-election in 1892. From 1897 to 1901, he served as federal recorder of deeds for the District of Columbia. Cheatham was appointed superintendent of the Colored Orphan Asylum and held that position until his death November 29, 1935.

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Today in Black History, 12/26/2014

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• December 26, 1884 Felix Adolphe Eboue, French colonial administrator, was born in Cayenne, Guyana. Eboue was a brilliant scholar and won a scholarship to study in Bordeaux, France. After graduating in law from the Ecole Colonial in Paris, from 1909 to 1931 he served in Oubangui-Chari (now the Central African Republic). He was appointed secretary general of Martinique in 1932 and served until 1934 when he was transferred to the same position in French Sudan. Eboue was transferred to Chad in 1938 and served until 1940 when he was appointed general governor of all of French Equatorial Africa, a position he held until his death March 17, 1944. During his tenure as general governor, Eboue worked to improve the status of Africans. He placed some Gabonese civil servants into positions of authority and advocated the preservation of traditional African institutions. After his death, the French colonies in Africa brought out a joint stamp issue in his memory. Eboue’s ashes are in The Pantheon of Paris, the first Black man to be so honored. His biography, “Eboue,” was published in 1972.

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Today in Black History, 12/25/2014

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• December 25, 1745 Joseph Bologne the Chevalier de Saint-Georges, musician, swordsman and equestrian, was born in Guadeloupe but raised in France. While still a young man, he acquired reputations as the best swordsman in France, as a violin virtuoso, and as a classical composer. He was appointed maestro of the Concert des Amateurs in 1771 and later director of the Concert de la Loge Olympique, the biggest orchestra of his time. He was eventually selected for appointment as director of the Royal Opera of Louis XVI but was prevented from taking the position because three Parisian divas felt that “it would be injurious to their professional reputations for them to sing on stage under the direction of a mulatto.” Saint-Georges also served in the French army and was appointed the first Black colonel and commanded a regiment of a thousand free colored volunteers. Despite his successes, Saint-Georges died destitute June 10, 1799. Biographies of Saint-Georges include “Joseph Boulogne called Chevalier de Saint-Georges” (1996) and “Joseph de Saint-Georges, le Chevalier Noir (The Black Chevalier)” (2006).

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Voices of the Civil War Episode 35: "African American Relief Organizations"

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DECEMBER 2014: The Voices of the Civil War is a five-year film series dedicated to celebrating and commemorating the Civil War over the course of the sesquicentennial. Each month, new episodes cover pertinent topics that follow the monthly events and issues as they unfolded for African Americans during the Civil War. Within these episodes there are various primary sources – letters and diaries, newspaper reports, and more - to recount various experiences of blacks during this period. We encourage your feedback and commentary through our Voices of the Civil War web blog.

Click here to visit the Voices of the Civil War blog to see previous episodes.

On December 19, 1864, The Ladies’ Sanitary Association of St. Thomas Episcopal Church in Philadelphia gave a holiday fair for the benefit of sick and wounded black soldiers. For Civil War charities working year round, the holiday season became an important moment to remind Americans of the needs of soldiers, freedmen, and others who were suffering under the burdens of war. For African American communities, these fundraising efforts became vital tools for providing much needed food, clothing, and other forms of assistance to black troops, who often lacked the most basic supplies provided to white Union soldiers. One of the most well known women who raised money for African American soldiers and freedmen was Elizabeth Keckley.

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Today in Black History, 12/24/2014

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• December 24, 1848 Levi Jenkins Coppin, missionary, editor and bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, was born in Frederick Town, Maryland. His mother taught him to read and write. At 17, Coppin moved to Wilmington, Delaware and in 1876 received his license to preach. He became editor of the A. M. E. Church Review in 1888 and held that position until 1896. Coppin became a bishop of the A. M. E. Church in 1900 and was assigned to Cape Town, South Africa in 1902 where he organized the Bethel Institute. He returned to the United States in 1912. Coppin died June 25, 1924. His autobiography, “Unwritten History,” was published in 1919.

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Today in Black History, 12/23/2014

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• December 23, 1815 Henry Highland Garnet, orator, educator and abolitionist, was born enslaved near New Market, Maryland. Garnet’s family escaped to freedom in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1824. They subsequently moved to New York City where from 1826 to 1833 Garnet attended the African Free School and the Phoenix High School for Colored Youth. Garnet went on to graduate, with honors, in 1839 from the Oneida Theological Institute of Whitesboro. He later joined the American Anti-Slavery Society and frequently spoke at abolitionist conferences. He delivered one of his most famous speeches, “Call to Rebellion,” to the National Negro Convention August 21, 1843. In that speech, he called for the enslaved to act for themselves to achieve total emancipation. By 1849, Garnet began to support emigration of Black people to Mexico, Liberia, or the West Indies and he founded the African Civilization Society. On February 12, 1865, he became the first Black minister to preach to the United States House of Representatives when he spoke about the end of slavery. Garnet was appointed president of Avery College in 1868 and was appointed U. S. Minister to Liberia in 1881. Garnet died February 13, 1882. The Henry Highland Garnet School for Success in Harlem, New York and the HHG Elementary School in Chestertown, Maryland are named in his honor. His biographies include “Henry Highland Garnet: A Voice of Black Radicalism in the Nineteenth Century” (1977) and “Rise Now and Fly to Arms: The Life of Henry Highland Garnet” (1995).

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Today in Black History, 12/22/2014

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• December 22, 1870 Jefferson Franklin Long, the first African American from Georgia to be elected to the United States House of Representatives, was seated. Long was born enslaved March 3, 1836 near Knoxville, Georgia and was self-educated. By 1867, he was a prominent member of the Republican Party, traveling throughout the South urging formerly enslaved men to register to vote. Partially as a result of his efforts, 37 African Americans were elected to the Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867 and 32 to the state legislature. Long advocated for public education, higher wages, and better terms for sharecroppers. He also helped organize the Union Brotherhood Lodge, a Black mutual aid society in Macon, Georgia. Long was elected to fill a vacancy and served in Congress until March 3, 1871. On February 1, 1871, Long became the first African American to speak on the floor of the United States House of Representatives. He spoke against the Amnesty Bill which exempted former Confederate politicians from swearing allegiance to the Constitution. Despite his efforts, the bill passed. Long did not seek re-election but did serve as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1880. After serving in Congress, Long resumed business as a merchant tailor in Macon and died there February 4, 1901.

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Today in Black History, 12/21/2014

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• December 21, 1872 Robert Scott Duncanson, landscape painter, died. Duncanson was born in 1821 in Seneca County, New York and went to live with his father in Canada as a young boy. He returned to the United States in 1841 with a desire to be an artist and taught himself by painting portraits and copying prints. Duncanson traveled the world in pursuit of his art and in 1845 moved to Detroit, Michigan. In 1846, the Detroit Daily Advertiser praised Duncanson for his skill and color usage, adding “Mr. Duncanson deserves, and we trust will receive the patronage of all lovers of the fine arts.” With the onset of the Civil War, Duncanson exiled himself to Canada and the United Kingdom where his work was well received and the London Art Journal declared him a master of landscape painting. His paintings “Drunkard’s Plight” (1845), “At the Foot of the Cross” (1846), and “Uncle Tom and Little Eva” (1853) are in the collection of the Detroit Institute of Arts.

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Today in Black History, 12/20/2014

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• December 20, 1935 William Julius Wilson, sociologist, educator and author, was born in Derry, Pennsylvania. Wilson earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1958 from Wilberforce University, his Master of Arts degree in 1961 from Bowling Green State University, and his Ph. D. in 1966 from Washington State University. He taught at the University of Massachusetts Amherst from 1965 to 1972 and the University of Chicago from 1972 to 1996. He was appointed the Lucy Flower University Professor and director of the University of Chicago’s Center for the Study of Urban Equality in 1990. Wilson joined the faculty of Harvard University in 1996 and is currently the Lewis P. and Linda L. Geyser University Professor. Wilson has authored a number of books, including “The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions” (1978), “The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy” (1987), and “More Than Just Race: Being Poor and Black in the Inner City” (2009). He is past president of the American Sociological Association and has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Wilson has received many honors, including more than 40 honorary doctorate degrees, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur “Genius” Award in 1987, and the only non-economist to receive the Seidman Award in Political Economy. He received the National Medal of Science, the highest honor the United States bestows on scientist, engineers, and inventors, from President William J. Clinton December 8, 1998 and the Anisfield-Wolf Book Lifetime Achievement Award in Nonfiction in 2010.

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Today in Black History, 12/19/2014

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• December 19, 1864 William Cooper Nell became the first African American to work in the federal civil service when he became a postal clerk in Boston, Massachusetts. Nell was born December 16, 1816 in Boston. He studied law in the early 1830s but was never certified as a lawyer because he would not swear allegiance to the Constitution of the United States which he believed advocated the enslavement of African Americans in the South. Nell was influential in organizing the Freedom Association and the Committee of Vigilance which were all-Black organizations that helped previously enslaved Black people that had fled to the North. From 1848 to 1851, Nell worked with Frederick Douglass on the abolitionist publication The North Star and was instrumental in the 1855 decision to allow African American students in Massachusetts to study alongside their White classmates. Nell was a prolific author and wrote two exhaustive studies of African Americans in war, “Services of Colored Americans in the Wars of 1776 and 1812” (1851) and “Colored Patriots of the American Revolution” (1855). Nell died May 25, 1874. “William Cooper Nell: Abolitionist, Historian and Integrationist; Selected Writings, 1832-1874” was published in 2002.

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Today in Black History, 12/18/2014

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• December 18, 1852 George Henry White, the last African American Congressman of the Reconstruction era, was born in Rosindale, North Carolina. After graduating from Howard University in 1877, White studied law privately and was admitted to the North Carolina bar in 1879. He entered politics in 1880 when he was elected to the North Carolina House of Representatives. He was elected to the North Carolina Senate in 1884 and Solicitor and Prosecuting Attorney in 1886. White was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1896 and re-elected in 1898. As a result of changes in the voting laws and the intimidation of Black voters, White did not run for a third term. In his farewell speech he said, “This is perhaps the Negroes’ temporary farewell to the American Congress but let me say, Phoenix-like he will rise up some day and come again.” His speech was referenced by President Barack H. Obama in his remarks at the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation’s Annual Awards Dinner September 26, 2009. White was an officer in the National Afro-American Council, a nationwide civil rights organization created in 1898. He moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1906 where he practiced law, operated a commercial savings bank, and founded the town of Whitesboro, New Jersey as a real estate development. White died December 28, 1918. His biography, “George Henry White: An Even Chance in the Race of Life,” was published in 2000.

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Today in Black History, 12/17/2014

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• December 17, 1663 Nzinga Mbande, queen of the Ndongo and Maamba Kingdoms in southwestern Africa, died. Nzinga was born in 1583 in what is now Angola in southwestern Africa. After the death of her brother, Nzinga assumed the title of Queen of Ndongo in 1623. From 1624 to 1657, she led her troops in battle against the Portuguese colonizers. After signing a peace treaty with Portugal, Nzinga devoted her efforts to resettling formerly enslaved Africans. After her death, the Portuguese accelerated their occupation of southwest Africa and significantly expanded the slave trade. A major street in Luanda, Angola is named in Nzinga’s honor and a statue of her sits on an impressive square. A biography, “Nzinga: Warrior Queen of Matamba, Angola, Africa, 1595,” was published in 2000 and a play, “Nzinga, the Warrior Queen,” was produced in 2006. Nzinga’s name is enshrined in the Ring of Genealogy at the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit, Michigan.

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Today in Black History, 12/16/2014

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• December 16, 1816 William Cooper Nell, abolitionist, author and civil servant, was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Nell studied law in the early 1830s but was never certified as a lawyer because he would not swear allegiance to the Constitution of the United States which he believed advocated the enslavement of African Americans in the South. Nell was influential in organizing the Freedom Association and the Committee of Vigilance which were all-Black organizations that helped previously enslaved Black people that had fled to the North. From 1848 to 1851, Nell worked with Frederick Douglass on the abolitionist publication The North Star and was instrumental in the 1855 decision to allow African American students In Massachusetts to study alongside their White classmates. Nell was a prolific author and wrote two exhaustive studies of African Americans in war, “Services of Colored Americans in the Wars of 1776 and 1812” (1851) and “Colored Patriots of the American Revolution” (1855). On December 19, 1864, he became a postal clerk in Boston, the first African American to work in the federal civil service. Nell died May 25, 1874. “William Cooper Nell: Abolitionist, Historian and Integrationist; Selected Writings, 1832-1874” was published in 2002.

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Today in Black History, 12/15/2014

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• December 15, 1883 William Augustus Hinton, bacteriologist, pathologist and educator, was born in Chicago, Illinois. Hinton earned his Bachelor of Science degree from Harvard University in 1905 and his Doctor of Medicine degree, with honors, from Harvard Medical School in 1912. Hinton returned to Harvard in 1918 as the first Black professor in the history of the university. In 1921, he began teaching bacteriology and immunology which he taught until his retirement in 1950. Hinton became internationally known as an expert in the diagnosis and treatment of syphilis and published the first medical textbook by a Black American, “Syphilis and Its Treatment,” in 1936. In recognition of his contributions as a serologist and public health bacteriologist, in 1948 Hinton was elected a life member of the American Social Science Association. Hinton died August 8, 1959. The William A. Hinton State Laboratory Institute in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts and the William Augustus Hinton Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois are named in his honor.

 

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Today in Black History, 12/14/2014

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• December 14, 1829 John Mercer Langston, attorney, abolitionist and educator, was born in Louisa County, Virginia. Langston earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1849 and Master of Arts degree in theology in 1852 from Oberlin College. Denied admission to law school because of his race, Langston studied under an established attorney and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1854. Together with his brothers, Langston became active in the Abolitionist Movement and became president of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society in 1858. During the Civil War, Langston was appointed to recruit African Americans to fight for the Union Army and after the war was appointed Inspector General for the Freedmen’s Bureau, a federal organization that assisted formerly enslaved Black people. From 1864 to 1868, Langston served as president of the National Equal Rights League which called for the abolition of slavery, support of racial unity and self-help, and equality before the law. Langston established and served as dean of Howard University Law School in 1868, the first Black law school in the country. President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Langston a member of the Board of Health of the District of Columbia. President Rutherford B. Hayes appointed him United States Minister to Haiti (Ambassador) in 1877 and he was appointed Charge d’affaires to the Dominican Republic in 1884. Langston was named the first president of Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute (now Virginia State University) in 1885 and became the first Black person elected to the U. S. Congress from Virginia in 1888. Langston published his autobiography, “From the Virginia Plantation to the National Capitol: Or the First and Only Negro Representative in Congress From the Old Dominion” in 1894. Langston died November 15, 1897. There are a number of schools named in his honor, including Langston University in Oklahoma. The John Mercer Langston Bar Association in Columbus, Ohio is also named in his honor. His biography, “John Mercer Langston and the Fight for Black Freedom, 1829 – 65,” was published in 1989 and his house in Oberlin was designated a National Historic Landmark May 15, 1975.

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Today in Black History, 12/13/2014

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• December 13, 1872 Osborne Perry Anderson, the only African American to escape capture from John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, died. Anderson was born July 27, 1830 in West Fallow Field, Pennsylvania. He attended Oberlin College before moving to Chatham, Ontario, Canada. There he worked as a printer for the Provincial Freeman. He met John Brown in 1858 and was persuaded to participate in the Harpers Ferry raid. On October 16, 1859, Anderson was one of five African Americans to participate in the raid. The raid failed and Anderson and four White men were the only participants to escape capture. He published “A Voice From Harpers Ferry” in 1861, the only first-hand account of the events and motivation of the participants. Anderson enlisted in the Union Army in 1864 and served as a recruitment officer during the Civil War.

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Today in Black History, 12/12/2014

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• December 12, 1816 Robert James Harlan, entrepreneur, politician and army officer, was born enslaved in Harrodsburg, Kentucky. Harlan was tutored by his two older half-brothers and at 18 opened a barbershop. He later opened a grocery store and traded animal skins with local hunters. He moved to California in 1849 and within a year and a half had amassed over $90,000 in gold. He moved to Cincinnati, Ohio in 1851 and invested in real estate and a photographic gallery. Despite his business success, Harlan remained legally enslaved. Therefore, he returned to Kentucky and bought his freedom for $500. Also during that time, he opened the first school for African American children in Cincinnati and served as a trustee for the Cincinnati Public School System and the Colored Orphan Asylum. Harlan served one term in the Ohio State Legislature and successfully fought for repeal of Ohio’s “Black Laws.” He was a delegate to the 1872 Republican National Convention and was appointed by President Chester A. Arthur special agent for the United States Post Office and Treasury. In 1878, President Rutherford B. Hayes commissioned him a colonel in the U. S. Army. Harlan died September 24, 1897.

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Today in Black History, 12/11/2014

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• December 11, 1894 William B. Purvis of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania received patent number 530,650 for a Paper-Bag Machine which more perfectly formed the square bottom of paper bags. Purvis had previously received patent number 419,065 January 7, 1890 for a fountain pen. That invention made the use of an ink bottle obsolete by storing ink in a reservoir within the pen which was then fed to the tip of the pen. Over his lifetime, Purvis received nine additional patents. He is also believed to have invented, but did not patent, several other devices. Not much else is known of Purvis’ life.

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Today in Black History, 12/10/2014

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• December 10, 1854 Edwin C. Berry, businessman, was born in Oberlin, Ohio but raised in Athens, Ohio. Berry was often called the “Black Horatio Algier” because he erected a 22 room hotel which was one of the finest and most elegant hotels in Ohio. At the time of his retirement in 1921, he had a reputation as the most successful Black small city hotel operator in the country. He was a member of the National Negro Business League and a trustee of Wilberforce University. Berry died March 12, 1931.

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